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Solar DAO is Making Progress

28.09.2017 — 0

Time to look at how the project is doing.

Since the end of the Pre-ICO the team has achieved the following milestones:

1. We have started developing the interface for project management.

Besides the main functionality, it will allow us to change the character of electric current at the utilities, and raise financing for the use of a product that is already there and running, instead of raising funds for a work-in-progress. This will make life a lot easier by significantly reducing the risk of regulatory complaints and interventions.

Last but not least, the interface is one of the core products of Solar DAO, the skeleton of the whole project.

2. We keep gathering the pool of our marketing partners to conduct the core ICO.

Our marketing programme for the ICO will be very different from what is now mainstream in the blockchain scene. We believe it will allow for a much greater marketing efficiency. So be prepared for pleasant surprises 🙂

3. We have started negotiations with financial partners and foundations to raise more funds.

For example, now we are in touch with Humaniq, a blockchain-based banking service. We will keep you posted about how things are going on the financial front.

4. We are working hard to enroll advisers and partners in Solar DAO.

This will help us increase the project’s visibility, legitimacy, and manage risk more effectively. We will keep you updated on our successes and on what is ahead.

Stay tuned with Solar DAO.

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How 140 countries could be powered by 100% of renewable energy sources by 2050

05.09.2017 — 0

On August 23, the journal *Joule, *published by Cell Press and focussing on sustainable energy, revealed the latest roadmap to a fully renewable energy future authored by a group of researchers under the leadership of Mark Z. Jacobson of Stanford University. The roadmap presents a comprehensive vision of what kind of steps a transition to 100% renewable energy would involve for 139 countries. To be entirely powered by wind, solar, and water energy, the governments will need to have their all energy sectors electrified by 2050, but a successful transformation would mean a net increase of over 24 million of long-term jobs, an annual decrease in 4–7 air pollution casualties per year, and annual savings of over $20 trillion in health and climate costs. In addition, the roadmap envisions less energy consumption, cleaner electricity, and stabilization of energy prices as a result of the proposed change.

On the Utility of Roadmaps

This article is about a recent roadmap, and roadmaps enjoy rather bad reputation among the sophisticated public. After all, what’s the purpose of the efforts of drafting a roadmap, involving researchers, analysts, and policy-makers, if there’s no enforcement mechanism, expressed or implied? The roadmap is there, but who would follow it, really? Politics is done behind the closed doors, and material interests, not public commitments, play the decisive part. That’s how the usual story goes. However, it still misses some crucial points.

Sociological and organizational research shows that people do need directions in their decision-making processes, and that public commitments to some objective, in the form of a roadmap, for example (or a business plan in the more private setting), can make a big difference. That is especially true in the case of high-tech industries, where the playground is often unclearly defined, and the stakeholders don’t quite see what’s going to happen even in the short-term. Roadmaps and performance targets help them focus, and also collectively build a shared vision of the future.

For example, if you’re a startup company, you need a business plan — not just because of a pro forma. The business plan, often denounced as a completely useless document, in fact, serves a crucial purpose in the evolution of your business. It is not legally binding, indeed, but it functions as a disclosure mechanism, enabling the potential investors to trust you and to see your skill set and vision of the future business. It also helps yourself by setting clearly the goals you want to achieve, and enabling more detailed performance assessments against these projections.

Or take the example of the Moore’s Law. When it was discovered, a roadmap outlining the projected evolution of transistors was shared among the scientists and industry participants. This document, provisional and non-binding like a business plan, enabled different stakeholders to achieve a shared vision of the future of the semiconductor industry. During the early stages, nothing is more important.

This explains why it is worth looking at the recent renewable energy roadmap published by Joule on August 23. Similar to any and all such documents, it acquires an increasing importance due to a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy: if you’re a stakeholder in the energy sector, you’re going to look at it, because you reason that others will do so anyway.

The Vision

The roadmap developed by Jacobson’s group provides a target vision of the coming developments towards a low-carbon economy and avoiding the global warming by creating energy self-sufficiency in 139 countries. The roadmap provides detailed assessments of the crucial parameters like the available raw renewable energy resources in each country, the number of renewable generators utilizing wind, solar, and water power, that will be needed to achieve 80% renewable generation by 2030, and a 100% level 20 years after that. It also details how much land and rooftop area these generators would require, with an optimistic conclusion that the number is going to be as little as 1% of the total area available and will significantly reduce energy demand and costs compared to the business-as-usual scenario.

Jacobson is the director of Stanford University’s Atmosphere and Energy Program and co-founder of the Solutions Project, a U.S. non-profit educating the public and policymakers about a transition to 100% clean, renewable energy. Contrary to many one-sided views, he believes that the “green” transition can be led by both governments and individuals alike, and sees his role as providing “some reasonable science” to help the policymakers in understanding that such transition is possible. “There are other scenarios. We are not saying that there is only one way we can do this, but having a scenario gives people direction.”

The data selection process was in part motivated, as often is the case, by the availability of the relevant data in the public domain. The 139 countries included in the roadmap have been comprehensively monitored by the International Energy Agency, so that there’s plenty of data available online. In particular, the researchers looked into the data on each country’s electricity, transport systems, heating and cooling, industrial and agricultural sectors, including also fishing and forestry industries. More specifically, the case selection was based on the fact that the countries at issue collectively emit over 99% of all carbon dioxide pollution globally.

Among the interesting and rather counter-intuitive findings, the study shows that the countries with a larger share of land per population, such as the US, China, and the EU, will have an opportunity to effect the transition more smoothly and easily than overpopulated countries like Singapore. The former are projected to achieve the 100% of renewable energy faster and with lesser costs, while for the latter, being an island surrounded by the ocean, the transition to fully solar, wind and water generation may require huge investments in offshore solar facilities.

The Benefits of Transition

The projected “green” transition is expected to bring about a few collateral benefits. First, a transition to 100% renewable energy would mean a deep change in the supporting infrastructure. Once you cease using biofuel and fossil fuel like oil, gas, and uranium, you no longer need the scaffolding infrastructure for mining, transporting and refining these fuels. That alone is quite an economy in terms of energy consumed by processing these substances, which leads to a decrease in the global power demand by 13%. The higher efficiency of electricity as opposed to burning the fossil fuels would also decrease demand by another 23%. Finally, less dependence on natural resources will potentially eliminate the unfavourable international dynamics, such as war and conflict around the fossil fuels issues, and economic shocks like the oil crisis of 1973. Oil has shaped military international conflicts for decades, and the transition to renewable energy might make this relationship less tight, and its consequences less severe. Just look at the picture below.

Moreover, renewable energy is also more accessible for distant communities living in relative insulation: for example, nothing prevents one from installing a large array of solar panels in isolated desert villages of Kazakhstan.

Jacobson’s study stand out precisely because it is not exclusively concerned with the issue of climate change and potential climate benefits of the proposed transition, but maps out the whole socio-economic landscape and how it will change with the gradual adoption of renewable energy. It covers also cost benefits, air pollution benefits, and net jobs benefits triggered by the movement to 100% wind, water, and solar. Jacobson says that “aside from eliminating emissions and avoiding 1.5 degrees Celsius global warming and beginning the process of letting carbon dioxide drain from the Earth’s atmosphere, transitioning eliminates 4–7 million air pollution deaths each year and creates over 24 million long-term, full-time jobs by these plans.” “It appears we can achieve the enormous social benefits of a zero-emission energy system at essentially no extra cost,” says co-author Mark Delucchi, a research scientist at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Science Daily reports that “the Joule paper is an expansion of 2015 roadmaps to transition each of the 50 United States to 100% clean, renewable energy and an analysis of whether the electric grid can stay stable upon such a transition.” The new study improves the calculations of the availability of rooftop solar energy, renewable energy generation and resources, as well the potential to create new jobs to replace the ones lost. In addition, the new roadmap extends the focus to encompass the world globally.

Contexts and Critiques

Similar to other renewable energy transition projects, Jacobson’s roadmap is not free of criticism. There are several prominent arguments against such visions. First, the critics assert that it is still worth looking at the traditional energy sources, such as biofuel and the “clean coal”, as well as nuclear power, and that those cannot be simply ignored. Second, the transition to 100% of water, wind, and solar energy have been criticized for being dependent on some specific technologies such as underground heat storages, that are possible to organize only in some rocky places, and the use of electric and hydrogen fuel cell aircraft, which now exist only in small planes. Finally, the third line of criticism argues that any such transition would require massive investments in infrastructure that not all countries can really afford.

Jacobson defends his views as follows. Firstly, it was necessary to exclude nuclear power because of its long (10 to 20 years) cycle of planning and operation, as well as its high cost and waste and military risks. “Clean coal” and biofuels are neglected because both are known as heavily polluting the air and emitting 50+ times more carbon per unit of energy than wind, water, or solar power.

As for the underground heat storage, it is not a necessarily required but certainly a viable option since it is similar to district heating, which provides much of the heat in certain countries (for example, as much as 60% of Denmark’s heat). Jacobson also says that space shuttles and rockets have been propelled with hydrogen, and aircraft companies are now investing in electric airplanes. Wind, water, and solar can also face daily and seasonal fluctuation, making it possible that they could miss large demands for energy, but this kind of instability of variable energy sources is well known and can be addressed in several ways. Moreover, the traditional baseline energy generation tends to overemphasize the demand stability which is even harder to predict in rapidly growing economies.

Finally, regarding the social and economic costs of the transition, including the energy, climate and health costs, Jacobson says that, overall, it will be one-fourth of that of the current fossil fuel system. Moreover, most of the costs to be faced upfront will be needed anyway, because the existing infrastructure needs to be replaced, and the rest of the investment will pay itself off by hugely reducing climate and health costs of the society.

The scientific community is generally positive about the roadmap, finding it as pushing forward the “conversation within and between the scientific, policy, and business communities about how to envision and plan for a decarbonized economy,” Mark Dyson of Rocky Mountain Institute, in writes an accompanying preview of the paper.


  1. Jacobson et al. 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight (WWS) All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World. Joule, 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.joule.2017.07.005
  2. Mark Z. Jacobson, Mark A. Delucchi, Guillaume Bazouin, Zack A. F. Bauer, Christa C. Heavey, Emma Fisher, Sean B. Morris, Diniana J. Y. Piekutowski, Taylor A. Vencill, Tim W. Yeskoo. 100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States. Energy Environ. Sci., 2015; 8 (7): 2093 DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01283J
  3. Mark Z. Jacobson, Mark A. Delucchi, Mary A. Cameron, Bethany A. Frew. Low-cost solution to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of intermittent wind, water, and solar for all purposes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015; 112 (49): 15060 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1510028112
  4. Martin Giraudeau. **The drafts of strategy: opening up plans and their uses.**Long Range Planning, 41 (3). pp. 291–308.
  5. Peter B. Miller P, Ted O’Leary. **Mediating instruments and making markets: Capital budgeting, science and the economy.**Accounting, Organizations and Society. 2007 Oct;32(7–8):701–734. Available from, DOI: 10.1016/j.aos.2007.02.003

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Rooftop PV Solar Plant

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Everything You Need to Know About Operations & Maintenance (O&M) For Utility Scale PV Solar Plants

02.09.2017 — 0

From the key issues to contracts structure, all explained in brief.

Once the PV solar plant has been built, it needs to be efficiently operated and carefully maintained. Compared to other power generating technologies, solar PV power plants have low maintenance and servicing requirements.

However, as International Financial Corporation warns, “proper maintenance of a PV plant is essential to maximise both energy yield and the plant’s useful life. Optimal operations must strike a balance between maximising production and minimising cost”.

Indeed, while solar energy does require almost no maintenance at all as compared to the other generation sources, PV solar plants are investments that are likely to last for 20–25 years or more, and that’s why in order to arrive at an accurate ROI figure, one needs to address the operation and maintenance issues.

Thus, before turning to the actual process and stages of maintenance and operation, one needs to understand the issues involved in the functioning of a PV solar plant. Naturally, they can be divided into the groups according to the plant’s main components.

O&M Issues in PV Solar Energy

1. Natural Degradation

All solar cells naturally degrade over time, regardless of the environment they are in. This is called natural degradation, and is completely normal for all solar cells to experience once in operation. Depending on the material, the rate of degradation can vary. This is important to take into account in budgeting and investment planning.

The following table summarizes the degradation rates of solar panels made of different materials. As is clear from the table, Solar DAO PV plants are among the most robust ones, since the solar panels used are made of crystalline silicon which is characterized by the one of lowest annual degradation rates.

Natural degradation cannot be prevented, but must be taken into account in the planning process. It can also be covered by warranties. Usually, manufacturing companies that produce solar modules offer warranties if degradation rate exceeds certain amounts, for example, if it is more than 0.8–0.6% depending on the particular firm. The good news is that the higher quality panel, the less natural degradation.

The degradation rate must be weighed against the cost and the utility of particular materials from which the solar models are made. The following chart, provided by Scandia Labs, demonstrates the estimates for Average Utility-Scale Solar PV O&M Costs, by Technology ($/kWAC-yr), including different types of solar panels materials, as well as different types of trackers with which the panels are equipped. Here, again, crystalline silicon stands out, as do conventional solar panels as opposed to concentrating photovoltaics that uses lenses and curved mirrors to focus sunlight on the solar cells.

  • CdTe — cadmium telluride;
  • CIGS — copper indium gallium selenide;
  • c-Si — crystalline silicon;
  • SAT — single-axis tracking;
  • DAT — dual-axis tracking;
  • CPV — concentrating photovoltaics.

2. Grounding and Lightning Protection

PV solar plant is a structure of considerable size, which is why some lightning protection is in order. The first level of such protection is the ground mount system itself, whereby the grounding system redirects the energy from the lightning into the ground and away from the panels. Depending on the foundation, different forms of grounding can be used, as summarized in the following table provided by the Desert Research Institute:

Note that copper conductor may be tinned, and that aluminium is not allowed to be buried into the soil. It is also important to use the same type of metal in both the grounding system and in the protection equipment, so as to avoid corrosion.

Even with a proper grounding system, a PV installation can still be at risk from lightning. Even after the lightning energy has been discharged into the ground, it can still cause a power surge within the solar panels array, which is why a surge protection equipment is in order. In some cases it is not needed, if the grounding system is effective enough to reduce the lightning strike energy.

3. Component Failures (panels, inverters, trackers)

3.1. Panel cracking.

Different components of PV solar plant may fail during the operation. First, panels might crack, even in the new once, if they have been damaged in the manufacturing process. The micro-cracks are not always obvious, and that’s why the new panels must be inspected and a warranty must be secured. The cracks may lead to the failure of panels or losses of optimal efficiency.

3.2. Visual discoloration.

Visual discoloration is another common defect that reduces the amount of sunlight that penetrates into a solar cell. As a result, solar cells are less exposed to solar irradiation, and generate less energy. The reason it leads to loss of efficiency is because different color panels changes the wavelength of light that can be absorbed. As in the case with panel cracking, not much can be done once the panel became discolored, hence the solar panels must be carefully operated and maintained.

3.3. Hotspots.

Contrary to the common misleading opinion, solar panels are most efficient when they gain maximum solar irradiance, not maximum temperature. Quite the contrary, high temperatures can actually damage solar panels, leading to the emergence of the hot spots. Hot spots occur when a panel is shaded, damaged, or electrically mismatched and decrease power output. Since solar cells are attached in strings, just one hot spot can lead to multiple cells functioning poorly. To solve this problem, all shading should be negated, and electrical connections should be optimized.

3.4. Inverters failure.

Generally, inverter faults are the most common cause of system downtime in PV power plants. Therefore, the scheduled maintenance of inverters should be treated as a centrally important part of the O&M strategy.

3.5. Trackers and Panel Orientation.

Panel orientation is an issue for static PV solar systems. It requires due diligence on the consumer’s part to make sure the installer is taking the proper steps necessary to determine an ideal panel orientation. Similarly, tracking systems also require maintenance checks. These checks will be outlined in the manufacturer’s documentation and defined within the warranty conditions. In general, the checks will include inspection for wear and tear on the moving parts, servicing of the motors or actuators, checks on the integrity of the control and power cables, servicing of the gearboxes and ensuring that the levels of lubricating fluids are appropriate. The alignment and positioning of the tracking system should also be checked to ensure that it is functioning optimally. Sensors and controllers should be checked periodically for calibration and alignment.

3.5. Structural Integrity.

The module mounting assembly, cable conduits and any other structures built for the solar PV power plant should be checked periodically for mechanical integrity and signs of corrosion. This will include an inspection of support structure foundations for evidence of erosion from water run-off.

4. Weather Conditions (snow, wind, soiling).

Finally, depending on the environmental conditions, the panels must be protected from wind, snow, and soiling (in dusty areas). Regular cleaning and maintenance will be enough in these cases. Solar DAO uses durable crystalline silicon panels that are built of lead-free, optically transparent, anti-reflective glass, which can withstand the tested shot of an ice ball with 35mm diameter at a speed of 30 m/s. Their serviceable life is up to 25 years, with 10 years of guaranteed performance.

5. Other issues

Other common unscheduled maintenance requirements include but are not limited to:

  • Tightening cable connections that have loosened.
  • Replacing blown fuses.
  • Repairing lightning damage.
  • Repairing equipment damaged by intruders or during module cleaning.
  • Rectifying SCADA faults.
  • Repairing mounting structure faults.
  • Rectifying tracking system faults.

O&M Approaches and Activities

Maintenance can be broken down in two parts:

  • Scheduled maintenance: Planned in advance and aimed at fault prevention, as well as ensuring that the plant is operated at its optimum level.
  • Unscheduled maintenance: Carried out in response to failures.

Another way to classify the PV O&M approaches is to break them down into three categories, each with different cost-benefit tradeoffs and risk profiles:

  • Preventative maintenance (PM) encompasses routine inspection and servicing of equipment — at frequencies determined by equipment type, environmental conditions, and warranty terms in an O&M services agreement — to prevent breakdowns and unnecessary production losses. Th is approach is becoming increasingly popular because of its perceived ability to lower the probability of unplanned PV system downtime. However, the upfront costs associated with PM programs are moderate and the underlying structure of PM can engender superfluous labor activity if not optimally designed.
  • Corrective or reactive maintenance addresses equipment repair needs and breakdowns after their occurrence and, as such, is instituted to mitigate unplanned downtime. The historical industry standard, this “break-fi x” method allows for low upfront costs, but also brings with it a higher risk of component failure and accompanying higher costs on the backend (perhaps placing a premium on negotiating extended warranty terms). Th ough a certain amount of reactive maintenance will likely be necessary over the course of a plant’s 20-year lifetime, it can be lessened through more proactive PM and condition-based maintenance (CBM) strategies.
  • **Condition-based maintenance (CBM) **uses real-time data to anticipate failures and prioritize maintenance activities and resources. A rising number of third party integrators and turnkey providers are instituting CBM regimes to offer greater O&M efficiency. The increased effi ciency, however, comes with a high upfront price tag given communication and monitoring software and hardware requirements. Moreover, the relative novelty of CBM can produce maintenance process challenges caused in part by monitoring equipment malfunction and/or erratic data collection.

Preventative Maintenance (PM) includes the following activities:

  • Panel Cleaning
  • Water Drainage
  • Vegetation Management
  • Retro-Commissioning (identifies and solves problems that have developed during the course of the PV system’s life.)
  • Wildlife Prevention
  • Upkeep of Data Acquisition and Monitoring Systems (e.g., electronics, sensors)
  • Upkeep of Power Generation System (e.g., Inverter Servicing, BOS Inspection, Tracker Maintenance)
  • Site maintenance (e.g., security, road/fence repair, environmental compliance, snow removal, etc.).

Corrective/Reactive Maintenance typically includes:

  • On-Site Monitoring
  • Non-Critical Reactive Repair (addresses production degradation issues)
  • Critical Reactive Repair (high priority, addresses production losses issues)
  • Warranty Enforcement

Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) usually consists in Active Monitoring — Remote and On-Site Options Equipment Replacement (Planned and Unplanned) and Warranty Enforcement (Planned and Unplanned).

Contracts & Obligations

1. Key Contractual Provisos (KCP)

KCPs in O&M contracts impact the O&M budgeting considerations and approaches, and typically include:

  • **Service-level agreements (SLA) **— specify compliance timeframes for responding to and resolving a range of plant conditions, based on equipment type and issue severity level.
  • Availability or “uptime” guarantees — define the percentage of time that a system must be fully able to produce electricity. Availability guarantees are typically set at 97–99% per year.
  • Performance ratio and yield guarantees — stipulate plant performance levels (e.g., a minimum amount of energy delivered) according to measured solar irradiation at a site, based on system design and modeled plant behavior — which can be variable, thus introducing risks. These guarantees account for Force Majeure events and warranty defects.
  • **Production guarantees **— state annual plant production levels, independent of weather conditions. Insurance coverage can be used to mitigate weather risk, though it can be an expensive policy to underwrite.
  • **Performance incentives **— reward/penalize for plant performance that misses, meets, or exceeds projected production levels.
  • Energy-based contracts — links plant production (kWh/yr) with O&M service provider revenues so that associated expenses are calibrated according to low (fall/winter) and high (spring/summer) revenue periods.

2. O&M Contract Contents

The purpose of an O&M contract is to optimise the performance of the plant within established cost parameters. To do this effectively, the O&M contract should clearly set out:

  • Services to be carried out by, and obligations of, the contractor.
  • Frequency of the services.
  • Obligations of the owner.
  • Standards, legislation and guidelines with which the contractor must comply.
  • Payment structure.
  • Performance guarantees and operational targets.
  • Methodologies for calculating plant availability and/or performance ratio.
  • Methodologies for calculating liquidated damages/ bonus payments in the event of plant under- or overperformance.
  • Terms and conditions.
  • Legal aspects.
  • Insurance requirements and responsibilities.

3. O&M Contractor Services and Obligations

The O&M contract should list the services to be performed by the contractor, including the following entries:

  • Plant monitoring requirements.
  • Scheduled maintenance requirements.
  • Unscheduled maintenance requirements.
  • Agreed targets and/or guarantees (for example, response time or system availability figure) Reporting requirements (including performance, environmental, health and safety, and labour relations reporting).
  • The contractor should also be contractually obliged to optimise plant performance. Additionally, it should be stipulated that all maintenance tasks should be performed in such a way that their impact on the productivity of the system is minimised.

The O&M contract will also typically define the terms by which the contractor is to:

  • Provide, at intervals, a visual check of the system components for visible damage and defects.
  • Provide, at intervals, a functional test of the system components.
  • Ensure that the required maintenance will be conducted on all components of the system. As a minimum, these activities should be in line with manufacturer recommendations and the conditions of the equipment warranties.
  • Provide appropriate cleaning of the modules and the removal of snow (site-specific).
  • Make sure that the natural environment of the system is maintained to avoid shading and aid maintenance activities.
  • Replace defective system components and system components whose failure is deemed imminent.
  • Provide daily (typically during business hours) remote monitoring of the performance of the PV plant to identify when performance drops below set trigger levels.

In an O&M contract, the obligations of the owner/ developer are generally limited to granting the O&M contractor access to the system and all the associated land and access points, obtaining all approvals, licences and permits necessary for the legal operation of the plant providing the O&M contractor with all relevant documents and information, such as those detailed above, that are necessary for the operational management of the plant.

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🔥 Pre-ICO Extended & Crowdsale Smart Contract Migration

31.08.2017 — 0

Not so long ago we launched promotion in China. Due to a huge demand we extend the duration of Pre-ICO till September the 6th.
So… you have 10more days to jump in!

Please, pay attention! For extending Pre-ICO we had to:

Migrate our smart contract.

New data:

How to get Solar DAO tokens

  1. Send Ether to Crowdsale smart contract: 
    Gas limit: 210k | No minimal amount required | You get tokens immediately
  2. Setup your wallet to see SDAO tokens:
    Check the SDAO balance. That’s it!

Before participating in Solar DAO, please read this:

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How to Participate in Solar DAO Pre-ICO

30.08.2017 — 0

Everything you should known about Solar DAO Pre-ICO Crowdsale. Please, read it carefully before participating. Make sure that you are totally understand how it work and be aware about all risks.

Solar DAO Crowdsale — At a Glance

The SDAO Pre-ICO started on July 27th and will end on September 10th, 2017 at 23:59 GMT.

The core ICO will start during 3 months after Pre-ICO.

80,000,000 (eight hundred million) SDAO ERC20 compatible tokens (“SDAO Tokens” henceforth) are being distributed during the Pre-ICO and the ICO.

The initial rate is 1 USD per 1 SDAO token.

  • SDAO tokens confirm membership in the Solar DAO and allow owners to receive dividends from PV solar plants owned and operated by Solar DAO.
  • SDAO tokens provide access to 100% of DAO’s net profit. All tokens distributed during the ICO entitle their owner to 100% profit.
  • Early bird bonuses have been foreseen. The highest bonus amounts will be distributed in the course of the Pre-ICO, however a bonus scale will be included in both crowdsales.
  • All unallocated tokens will be destroyed via smart contract. No additional tokens will be released.

The Pre-ICO bonuses are being distributed as follows:

  • 1st week: 100% bonus
  • 2nd week: 80% bonus
  • 3rd week: 70% bonus
  • 4th week: 60% bonus
  • 5th week: 50% bonus

The core ICO bonuses will be distributed as follows:

  • 1st week: 25% bonus
  • 2nd week: 20% bonus
  • 3rd week: 15% bonus
  • 4th week: 10% bonus
  • 5th week: no bonus

The token allocation will be organized as follows:

  • 75% — ICO Users
  • 23% — The Team
  • 2% — Rewards for the Bounty Campaign

The funds raised during the Pre-ICO and the ICO will be allocated as follows:

  • 80% — Investment funds
  • 10% — Financing the work of the team
  • 5% — Other operational activities

Any user is welcome to join the project before the end of the ICO. Upon completion of the ICO, all unallocated tokens will be destroyed via smart contract.

All transactions will be displayed in a smart contract. One month after the end of the ICO, users will be able to trade SDO tokens on cryptocurrency exchange markets.

How to Participate

**GUIDE: **How to get SDAO Tokens step by step

The Pre-ICO has started on 27th of July.

To participate in the SDAO Pre-ICO for tokens you need to send ETH to the Ethereum smart contract address. The Pre-ICO smart contract address will be available at: (Please follow the instruction step by step.)

Maximum contribution amount has no limit.

  1. Get Ether (ETH). You can buy it in a cryptocurrency exchange
  2. Transfer Ether to a compatible wallet (see below)
  3. Send a deposit to smart contract address (token sale address) with correct data and gas limit values
  4. Add info about SDAO tokens.

To be sure contributions are sent and received correctly, we recommend to use the configuration as follows:

  • Browser: Google Chrome / Firefox / Safari (Mac)
  • Wallet: MyEtherWallet

The Ethereum smart contract address for the Pre-ICO is: 0x1103849f41222A4C348515331f0E734D4bD9AD34


The following wallets are known to be COMPATIBLE with Ethereum tokens (ERC-20 standard):


Before ​​sending​​ ETH​​ please ​​carefully​​ read​​ the​​ information ​​as follows:

Any compatible wallet can be used to participate in the token distribution. To be compatible, a wallet must be:

  • Ethereum and ERC20 compatible
  • A web wallet

If you send ETH to the SDAO Pre-ICO Contract from an exchange account, your SDAO Tokens will be charged and allocated to the exchange’s ETH account, and you MAY NEVER receive or be able to recover your SDAO Tokens. To send ETH, you should use your personal ETH account.

There are many INCOMPATIBLE wallets, please make sure your wallet meets the criteria mentioned above before sending ETH.

Wallets as follows are known to be INCOMPATIBLE wallets and this is not a complete list. Do NOT use any of the wallets as follows for SDAO Pre-ICO participation:

  • Any Bitcoin exchange
  • Any Ethereum exchange
  • Jaxx
  • Exodus
  • Coinbase
  • Poloniex
  • Kraken
  • Bitstamp
  • Bitfinex
  • Bittrex

Please be aware of the following:







Technical ​​Risks

SDAO Pre-ICO Contract runs within Ethereum network therefore you need to be aware of things as follows.

1. Block building happens randomly

The timing of block building within Ethereum network is determined by proof of work algorithm thus blocks can occur randomly . For example, ETH sent to the SDAO Pre-ICO Contract in the very end of distribution may not be included in that period. You should understand that the Ethereum blockchain may not include your transaction at the time you expect and you may not receive SDAO Tokens at the same day when you send ETH.

2. Network Congestion

Please be also aware of possible periodic congestion might happens in the Ethereum network than transactions can be delayed or lost. Some individuals can spam the Ethereum network in attempt to gain an advantage in cryptographic tokens purchasing. You should understand that Ethereum miners not include your transaction in block when you expect or your transaction may not be included at all. This is Ethereum blockchain network restriction and not restriction of the SDAO Pre-ICO Contract.

3. Account Control

Do not send ETH to the SDAO Pre-ICO Contract from an account that you do not control SDAO Tokens will be charged to the ETH account from which ETH was received.

How Pre-ICO Crowdsale Smart Contract works

Our smart contracts are designed to handle presale distribution of Solar DAO tokens (SDAO). We call this presale: Preliminary ICO (Pre-ICO).

Please, check twice that you are totally understand major features before investing or interacting with these contracts:

  • Initial tokens price is 1 US Dollar = 1 SDAO token
  • There are bonuses with value that depends on time of investing (check the Solar DAO website)
  • We have maximum amount of $4M ($4’000’000). When we reach it presale finishes immediately
  • Project Team is able to stop presale at any time
  • You can not transfer SDAO tokens during presale and before the ICO ends
  • No refund or moneyback is available during Pre-ICO
  • Dev team is able to withdraw Ether at any time during or after presale




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How to build PV Solar Plant

26.08.2017 — 0

The entire process of PV plant explained, step by step. From the very beginning till the end across all proceedures. Let’s get started!

The process of PV solar plants construction is a complex endeavour involving considerable amounts of time, money, and expertise. It can be broken down into several stages:

  1. Identifying the location
  2. Determining the grid connection point
  3. Pre-construction documentation & negotiations
  4. Infrastructure (roads, fence, security)
  5. Purchase of equipment & logistics
  6. Mounting of the supporting structures
  7. Solar panels and inverters installation & connection
  8. Setting up the transformer substation
  9. Connection to the grid
  10. Monitoring system setup

Each stage brings new economically relevant information, so that the developer can update the estimates of anticipated performance, output, and costs of the PV solar power plant, as well the figures for expected financial returns.

1. Identifying the location

Before the construction process commences, one needs to identify the place to build the PV solar station and determine the point of connection to the grid. Thus, initially, Solar DAO will plan the project and obtain planning and connection consents from the local authorities.

The planning approval from the local authorities is the first major milestone in the whole process. PV solar plants require considerable space, because large arrays of solar panels need to be exposed to the sunlight. In practice, PV solar power plants occupy at least one hectare of area per 1 MWh of output, which requires an approval from the local administration. The project plan usually is subject to a complex health, safety and environmental audit as well.

2. Determining the grid connection point

The second major consideration in the planning of a new solar park concerns the availability, location, and capacity of the grid connection. Usually, the connection point is provided by the local authorities. However, several important issues need to be negotiated, due to the major impact of the grid connection point on the project’s costs and future revenue.

First, the grid network must be capable of absorbing the output of the PV solar station at its full capacity. Second, the project developer needs to be able to meet the cost requirements of providing power lines to the connection point, as well as additional costs that may be involved in the upgrading of the grid to make it suitable for absorbing the plant’s energy.

These costs can be eliminated by careful planning and established partnerships with grid operators in the target regions. That is why Solar DAO is going to build PV solar plants in proven jurisdictions with transparent rules and good ongoing business relationships (e.g. in Kazakhstan).

3. Pre-construction documentation & negotiations

This stage involves several equally important milestones, including obtaining the land rights, project documentation development, and obtaining the construction approval. During this stage the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is also signed, ensuring the long-term demand for the PV solar plant’s output.

After the legal and contract matters are settled, the infrastructure is getting built, including roads and factory walls; the project developer also hires security staff. Once the infrastructure is in place, the next task is to purchase the equipment and provide logistical support for its delivery.

The following list illustrates the sequence of project development stages as outlined by International Financial Corporation:

  1. Site Identification / Concept: identification of potential site(s), funding of the project development, rough technical concept development;
  2. Pre-feasibility study: assessment of differently, approximate cost/benefit analysis, assessment of different technical options, permitting needs, market assessment;
  3. Feasibility study: technical and financial evaluation of the preferred option, assessment of financing options, initiation of permitting process, development of rough technical concept, first contact with project development;
  4. Financing / Contracts: permitting, contracting strategy, supplier selection and contract negotiation, financing of project, due diligence, financing concept;
  5. **Detailed design: **preparation of detailed design for all relevant lots, preparation of project implementation schedule, finalization of permitting process, loan agreement;
  6. Construction: construction supervision, independent technical review of construction;
  7. Commissioning: performance testing, preparation of as-built-design (if required), Independent review of commissioning

4. Construction of the plant

The actual construction process is usually outsourced to one or more contractors who do the engineering, procurement, and construction work (EPC). The process involves all the major and necessary elements that the PV solar plants consist in.

PV solar plants use ground mounting systems of solar panels. The advantage of the ground mounting system, as compared to the roof-based solar panels systems, is that no two roofs are exactly alike, which significantly limits the possibilities of standardization. Conversely, the ground-mount systems offer much faster installation times, since much of the work can be done in advance.

Moreover, ground-mount systems have much easier access and do not entail staging and logistical challenges and costs of the roof-systems. The latter are less expensive in terms of site costs, but are more labor-intensive and have higher logistical costs. On the contrary, ground-mount systems require more upfront investment for site preparation, but the actual installation process is less complicated. Finally, ground-mount systems are more efficient and more scalable.

Solar panels are mounted on supporting structures made of aluminium profiles and stainless steel fasteners. Solar DAO usually applies fixed structures with a fixed angle of solar panel installation, which helps reducing construction and operating expenses.

In general, there are four main types of foundations that are commonly used: driven piles, helical piles, earth-screws, and ballasted foundations, as represented on the picture below:

Usually driven piles supports are used in large PV solar plants, being too costly for medium-sized and small ones. Concrete strip foundations can also be used, made of concrete blocks or constructed on site. The choice ultimately depends upon costs considerations and ground conditions. Driven piles are the simplest and least expensive foundations.

Aluminium supports are then being fastened to foundations which carry crossbeams to which the PV modules are fastened. The panels are also equipped with trackers that allow to optimize the utilization of solar irradiation. Dual-axis tracker allows to generate up to 45% more energy than a fixed system of a similar size.

5. Post-construction stage

In that stage the PV solar plant gets connected to the grid as agreed with the local authorities during the pre-construction negotiations. The monitoring systems also enters the play, being installed and set up for a remote monitoring of the plant’s operation.

The project developer can enter into a contract with a local subcontractor to undertake the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the station. However, in the case of Solar DAO the investment fund itself will be in charge of the O&M and remote monitoring. Generally, solar panels require minimal maintenance, being a reliable solid-state system, as compared to rotating machinery. Solar DAO’s solar panels made of crystalline silicon have a guaranteed duration of service of 10 years.

The entire process can be illustrated by the following summary picture by First Solar:

If** you enjoyed this story, please click the 👏 button and share to help others discover it! Feel free to leave a comment below.**

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Kazakhstan could become a PV solar energy powerhouse

12.08.2017 — 0

Solar energy potential, energy market and why it’s one of the main markets we are going to work with.

Large scale PV solar plant with central inverters

Solar DAO is a closed-end investment fund created to finance construction of PV solar plants around the world. The project’s white paper is available on its webpage, and all recent updates are published in Telegram.

Solar DAO is planning to expand in both Europe and Asia, with Kazakhstan being envisioned as one of the largest potential target markets. Solar DAO founders, UNISOLEX LLC, are already participating in construction of two PV solar plants, 1.06 MW in Kyzylorda and 10 MW in Almaty. This article provides a comprehensive overview of Kazakhstan’s potential to host a developed solar photovoltaics industry.

Despite the country’s rich endowment in fossil fuels, the Kazakh government is aspiring to get to the cutting edge of contemporary renewable energy support policies. Kazakhstan has been pursuing such policies quite consistently throughout the past decade, and the government expresses a strong commitment to renewable energy generation. As the following will demonstrate, the country indeed has a lot of strong advantages to become an Asian powerhouse of renewable energy generation.

Why Kazakhstan? Geography, Climate & Demography

Excluding Russia, Kazakhstan is the largest country of the former Soviet Union, and also the largest landlocked country in the world. With its 2,724,900 square kilometers of total area and 18’050’488 inhabitants, the country possesses an abundant quantity of natural resources, including oil and gas, as well as minerals, which account for as much as 57% of Kazakhstan’s industrial output, or about 13% of the national GDP. However, there is an enormous and underexplored potential for energy generation — overground.

Most of the country’s territory is covered by a vast flat steppe extending from the Volga river in the west to the Altai Mountains in the east, and from the plains of Western Siberia in the north to the Central Asia deserts. In other words, there is a plenty of space suitable for solar panels installation.

More importantly, **Kazakhstan has a particularly favourable climate condition for solar energy generation. **Due to the country’s unique geographical position, it enjoys the sunshine from 2200 to 3000 hours per year, which is equivalent to the annual rate of 1300 to 1800 kWh per square meter of solar radiation in central and southern regions, and from 1000 to 15000 kWh per square meter in the west and in the north.****This is especially true of the southern regions of the country. The following map shows the high potential regions for solar power plants.

The population of Kazakhstan is divided between rural and urban areas almost evenly, with 53.2% of total inhabitants living in the cities (2015 estimate). The major urban area is the country’s capital Astana with 759’000 inhabitants and Almaty with 1.5 million (2015).

Most of the country displays a relatively low population density, with an average of 6 persons per square kilometer. This is especially true in the country’s interior, that is, besides the urbanized areas of extreme north and extreme south. Low population density is widely recognized as one of the enabling conditions for solar energy development. These vast underpopulated areas could host large arrays of solar panels.

Moreover, developing the new capacity from renewable energy sources in both north and south could limit the need to transmit electricity over large distances, thus improving the efficiency of electrical supply and eliminating electricity imports from the other Central Asian countries.

On the other hand, for those people living in isolated villages and small towns, solar electricity will be a sustainable energy solution and thus the demand can be reasonably expected to be high. However, even in the large urban centers like Astana and Almaty planned temporary blackouts are not infrequent, mainly due to the ageing and inefficient infrastructure, suffering from 15 to 33% of efficiency losses. Here the construction of PV solar plants may help as well.

Electrical Energy

Bordering Russia in the North, and China in the South-West, Kazakhstan is the most economically powerful state in the vast region of Central Asia. In 2016, the country’s GDP amounted to $480 billion (at purchasing power parity), generating as much as 60% of the GDP of the whole region.

The country’s economic power is also reflected in its energy balance. Kazakhstan is ranked among the world’s highest energy intensive economies, even though its energy use is highly inefficient. The three power networks of Kazakhstan’s grid are tied in the north to the Russian power grid and in the south to the United Energy System of Central Asia, a regional power network developed in the Soviet Union to integrate intra-regional electric supply. The following picture maps the electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) infrastructure of Kazakhstan.

According to the 2016 estimates, Kazakhstan currently produces 94.5 billion kWh and consumes 91.6 billion kWh of electricity. The country also possesses a large pool of installed generation capacity of 22.06 million kW, of which 87% is generated from fossil fuels. Specifically, 75% of the total energy production is provided by coal power plants.

Against this background, the scores of renewable energy generation are almost negligible, with 13% of total installed capacity belonging to hydroelectric plants and 0.3% to other renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Other estimates report that renewable energy accounts for just 0.6% of all power installations, 95% of which comes from small hydropower projects.

However, from the point of view of PV solar plants construction, this can also be read as a huge and unexplored opportunity. According to a recent article published in Energy Procedia,

The recent economic growth in Kazakhstan increased demand for additional energy in order to ensure economic growth. In this context, the use of renewable resources to cover the gap between supply and demand becomes attractive.

According to the 2015 forecast reported in a recent article in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, even under conditions of low demand the electricity production in Kazakhstan will rise up to 100 TWh in 2023.

New energy will be needed to finance the new economic growth, and the Government of Kazakhstan is quite aware of the need to diversify its energy generation capacity by introducing renewable sources.

Targets and Visions

Since 1995, Kazakhstan has been a party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The country has also ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2009. Also in 2009, Kazakhstan established the rules for monitoring the renewable energy supply (amended in 2014).

The 2009 Law on the measures of state support for use of renewable energy sources creates favourable conditions for the construction and operation of renewable energy facilities. It introduced several measures to do so, including:

  • a process for development and approval of the plan (programme) regarding location;
  • mandatory purchase of electricity by a regional grid company and the national grid operator KEGOC (Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company);
  • partial compensation for electricity losses in their grids as a consequence of the above mentioned mandatory purchase of electricity;
  • an individual tariff is set by ANMR, the national anti-monopoly regulator, with the tariff fixed at a level that ensures investment payback at reasonable levels.

Building upon this, Kazakhstan created a multilateral, cross-sectoral and voluntary Partnership Programme “Green Bridge” (GBPP). Its main goal is to create a stable long-term foundation for green investment, technology transfer, environmental innovation and sustainability, including the creation of a labour market for long-term green jobs. In 2012, it has was endorsed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Brazil.

The year 2013 has been a year of opportunity for renewable energy in Kazakhstan. Since 2013, Kazakhstan uses feed-in tariffs, fixed for 15 years, that guarantee the purchase of electricity generated from solar energy according to the regulations, as well as tradable RECs.

In the same year the Government of Kazakhstan adopted a new law, On Supporting the Use of Renewable Energy Sources, that promotes technology-specific feed-in tariffs for selected renewable energy technologies, including solar photovoltaics, up to 35 MW. The programme is estimated to cost KZT 1,100 billion (c. €5.3 billion).

Also in 2013, the Government has set the objective to install about 1040 MW of renewable energy capacity by 2020, including 4 MW from solar sources, costing KZT 317.05 billion (c. €1.25 billion). Also in 2013, Kazakhstan adopted the Energy Efficiency 2020 programme, aiming to reduce energy consumption by 10% annually until 2015. More ambitiously, by 2020 the Kazakh government aims to achieve solar power generation level of 713.5 MW at 28 solar electric plants.

These targets are in line with the Government’s “Concept of Transition of Republic of Kazakhstan to the Green Economy” approved by Presidential Decree №577 in May 2013. The overall objectives of the Concept are to reduce energy consumption by 25% of the level of 2010 by 2020, 30% in 2030, and 50% in 2050. More specifically, Kazakhstan aims to achieve a share of at least 3% of energy generation from renewable sources (wind and solar), 30% in 2030, and 50% in 2050. During the current phase (until 2020), the project focuses on the creation of suitable infrastructure, including solar plants.

This project is managerially and financially supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and also UNECE (United Nations Commission for Europe), and the European Union.

A year before, in 2012, the country envisioned its long-term Strategy 2050 which set a goal to achieve 50% of energy generation from renewable sources by 2050. According to the UNPD analysis, this is a major step forward to develop renewable energy in the country. Thus, the Strategy prioritizes renewable energy projects in granting land plots and exempts them from custom duties for imported materials needed to commission the plant.

Moreover, the Strategy also creates favourable conditions for the plant operators, who no longer need to pay for transmission services and are eligible to obtain complimentary access to the power grid. These measures are meaningful, given the country’s problems with the ageing and inefficient transmission and distribution (T&D) infrastructure, and will enable future investors and producers to substantially reduce operational costs.

The Law on Investment allows renewable energy facilities to receive state-sponsored grant funding of up to 30% of the project costs related to land plots, buildings, machinery and equipment. Foreign investors have the opportunity to apply for tax deductions (in accordance with the Tax Code), including, but not limited to, exemptions from land and property taxes. Finally, electricity production no longer requires a licence, thus driving the bureaucratic costs down.

Most recently, 2017 has been announced to be the year of “green energy” in Kazakhstan, according to the country’s Ministry of Energy, with 37 projects aiming to attract investment in renewable energy across the country.

Policy Landscape

Organizational and institutional policy landscape in the field of renewable energy support is quite diverse in Kazakhstan. First, there is the Ministry of Industry and New Technology, responsible for the management of energy saving and energy efficiency policy. It approves feasibility studies for planned renewable energy projects and provides consulting support.

Field-specific players also include KEGOC, the major regional grid operator, that manages the national power network. Kazatomprom JSC is the National Atomic Company that has a subsidiary responsible for implementation of projects in renewable energy sector, including the KAZ PV that works with solar power projects. The ANMR, a regulatory body responsible for the antitrust regulation, sets and defines the tariffs and defines tariffs.

There is also a dedicated state investment agency Invest in Kazakhstan, engaging foreign investors to land in the country and providing consultancy services.

Besides, several major development banks are active in Kazakhstan’s renewable energy industry. Asian Development Bank (ADB) is providing equity, loans and guarantees for the private sector companies with clear development impacts, provided they expect a good rate of return. The Eurasian Development Bank is also active in the renewable energy support, granting loans of $30 to $100 million for renewable energy projects.

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), along with the International Finance Corporation (IFC), also provide renewable energy producers with equity, loans and loan guarantees, given the project’s good commercial potential to be realized within the next 15 years.

The EBRD is implementing the Kazakhstan Renewable Energy Financing Facility (KazREFF) to provide development support and debt finance to renewable energy projects, including solar energy, which meet required commercial, technical and environmental criteria. The Facility comprises an amount of up to €50 million for financing projects together with up to €20 million of concessional finance from Clean Technology Fund (CTF), and the technical assistance funded by the Japanese government through the Japan-EBRD Cooperation Fund (JECF).

The EBRD has been particularly active in financing the construction of solar parks in Kazakhstan: having established the Burnoye Solar 1 in Zhambyl region in April 2014, it is planning to start construction of Burnoye Solar 2, to be located in the same region, both with a capacity of 50 MW. The bank will grant a $44.5 million loan in partnership with the CTF.

Expert Opinions

In November 2012, Astana was chosen by the International Exhibitions Bureau (BIE) as the venue to host EXPO-2017, that is currently taking place under the title “Future Energy” and closing this September. This notable event is a good signal for investors in renewable energy in Kazakhstan, since the country became the first one of the former Soviet Union to host such a prominent international event, with participants from more than 100 nations and 10 international organizations. The EXPO will demonstrate the best global practices in the field of renewable energy generation, as well as the latest technological solutions in solar, wind, and water energy generation.

Kazakhstan’s prospects for renewable energy receive even more expert support. In November 2015, the 3rd International Forum on Sustainable Energy of CIS and Central Asia took place in Astana. In his speech at the Forum, Vitaly Daviy, the director of Innovative Business Centre (IBCentre), a Vilnius-based think tank and business event organizer, said that

In the next two years, Kazakhstan could become a major market for renewable energy in Central Asia and the CIS as a whole.

Other energy experts present at the Forum confirmed his vision. Thus, Sergey Novatsky, the CTO of Ukrainian Systems Solar emphasized the particular opportunity for Kazakhstan in the field of PV solar plants. According to him, if the solar panels are equipped with sun trackers (as Solar DAO plants indeed are), this could increase solar power productivity up to 30–40%. In Novatsky’s opinion, Kazakhstan is an ideal market for such systems.

Eric Wheeler, a London-based risk consultant from The Risk Advisory Group, is even more straightforward:

Additional installed capacity from renewable energy sources is seen as a potential panacea for electricity shortages in Kazakhstan.

A Window of Opportunity

Currently, there are 50 enterprises in Kazakhstan that produce renewable energy with a total capacity of 300 MW. With the country’s annual consumption of more than 90 billion kWh, there is clearly a long road ahead. More specifically, solar energy’s share in the emerging field of renewable energy remains modest, having been just slightly above 57 MW (as of September 2016). In 2017, there are 6 operating and 15 projected solar power stations across the country.

Alongside the notable efforts of EBRD (see above), foreign investors are increasingly interested in Kazakhstan’s potential. Most recently, the French company ECM Technologies, an industrial vacuum furnace manufacturer, in partnership with unspecified Chinese company, have announced the plan to construct a 12 MW solar park in Shetpe, Mangystau region, supported by the Kazakh government.

The fact that the Government is looking forward for investments in renewable energy is also evidenced by the recent establishment of a special online resource,, the atlas of Kazakhstan solar resources, launched by the Ministry of Energy and United Nations Development Project (UNPD) in May 2017 in partial fulfillment of the goals envisioned in the Green Economy Transition Concept (see above). The Atlas provides potential investors and other interested parties with comprehensive information in various forms on the solar resources in the country, relevant climate issues, electricity grid maps, and also has some functionality for analytics.

In summary, Kazakhstan is an attractive place to invest in solar energy, particularly in the construction of PV solar power plants, because of the following factors:

  • Vast territories covered by steppes with excessive sunshine during the year; low population density
  • The country’s need to finance its projected economic growth and to free itself from dependence on external electricity supply
  • The government’s awareness and explicit strong commitment to support renewable energy
  • Favourable policies and regulation for renewable energy generation, including feed-in tariffs and tax reductions
  • Active international involvement, including major international organizations and development agencies operating in the country

The two most important obstacles on the way for renewable energy industry development in Kazakhstan have been the steep capital requirements and the ageing and inefficient infrastructure. As for the latter, the government has introduced several important measures to drive down the operational costs for renewable energy producers, including favourable access to the grid, priority in granting land plots, and custom exemptions for materials and equipment supplies.

As for the former, Solar DAO is the best solution, with its ability to crowdfund the PV solar plants construction by engaging numerous investors, often with modest capitals. It is not by accident that Solar DAO is planning to expand in Kazakhstan: the project’s value proposition exactly matches the country’s needs. Solar DAO’s pre-ICO for tokens closes on August 31st.The best time to join is now.

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Solar Records

02.08.2017 — 0

Here are all “solar” records in one place as of the date of publication. Solar cells and panels efficiency records. The most biggest solar plants and largest equipment suppliers.

Remember: the simplest way to join solar industry is join Solar DAO*** =)***

PV solar cells efficiency world records

Multicyrstalline PV solar modules combined in array — PV solar plant

Solar module efficiency records

World’s largest PV solar plants


Photovoltaic (PV) power plant

Leaders of solar industry

World industry


Developers, suppliers and contractors

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Concentrated PV (CPV) solar plant

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[!] Crowdsale Smart Contract Migration

28.07.2017 — 0

Due to security reasons, Solar DAO crowdsale smart contract migrated to another address. Please pay attention. New contract works fine.

Attention, please!

We migrated crowdsale smart contract:

  • Old: 0xAdb6E66F41FEA754Ea91D46c63E5211b889AAEcb (doesn’t work)
  • NEW: 0x1103849f41222A4C348515331f0E734D4bD9AD34

Why did we do that??

To prevent users’ funds theft. We hired 3 teams to audit our contract before final deployment. They did not find any problems and risks.

But our brave programmers have found theoretical****possibility to change contract owner. It means hackers could change it and steal funds and tokens. To prevent this we had to deploy new contract version.

Finally, several hours ago we deployed new safe contract version and connected it with token smart contract. New contract does not have problems previous one had.

We are totally serious and responsible about our users’ funds. We are very attentive and picky about smart contracts security. Thanks to the attention and scrutiny of our programmers we managed to prevent funds theft.

What next?

Now all smart contracts work correcty and could be safely used.

In addition, we added additional service to monitor our smart contract in the 24/7 mode. If something happens we will be informed immediately.

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How to participate in Solar DAO crowdsale

26.07.2017 — 0

Simple steps to participate in Pre-ICO crowdsale. You need to have Ethereum wallet: MEW / Mist / Parity / ImToken.

Solar DAO Crowdsale website:

How to participate in Solar DAO Pre-ICO

To participate in any Ethereum token sale you need a wallet service or an application where you and you only holds your private keys. Private keys are needed to interact with smart contract functions, like transferring tokens.


Step-by-step manual

  1. Get Ether (ETH). You can buy it in a cryptocurrency exchange
  2. Transfer Ether to a compatible wallet (see below)
  3. Send a deposit to smart contract address (token sale address) with correct data and gas limit values
  4. Add info about SDAO tokens.

Sending a token sale transaction

token sale deposit transactions need to have non-default gas limit (a.k.a. transaction maximum gas). This is because token sale transactions are more complex than simple Ethereum transfer transactions. The default gas limits is too low to correctly perform a token sale deposit.

To participate you need to fill your transaction with following details:

  • **To Address: **this is given you on the crowdsalse deposit page
  • **Amount to Send: **amount of Ether you want to participate with
  • **Gas limit: **gas tells that this is a smart contract transaction and is more expensive than normal Ether transfer.

Please use 210 000 gas limit when participating in Solar DAO Pre-ICO.

Note: If you are using please double check your the gas limit field value after filling the data field. MyEtherWallet may reset the gas value to an invalid number after inputting the data field.

Smart contract

Crowdsale contract: 0x1103849f41222A4C348515331f0E734D4bD9AD34

You can read about — how Solar DAO Pre-ICO contract works.

Compatible wallets

The following wallets are known to be compatible with Ethereum tokens (ERC-20 standard):


Please, DO NOT send Ether from crypto exchanges. Your funds could be lost. First move your ETH to a compatible wallet in the above list.

If something goes wrong… check gas limit you use

If you set gas limit value too low your transaction is rejected and automatically refunded. The transaction might not appear in the blockchain explorer.

If your transaction has been rejected, please try to use more gas before resending.

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